NAT Static Vs NAT Dynamic

05 Sep


NAT Static digunakan untuk menerjemahkan 1 IP lokal ke 1 IP global ataupun sebaliknya, biasanya disebut one to one mapping. Misalnya di kantor ada FTP Server dengan IP yang tentunya IP Address tersebut hanya bisa diakses dari LAN saja karena IP nya private. Tetapi bila kita berada di luar kantor ingin tetap bisa mengakses FTP Server tersebut, maka dibuatlah NAT Static dengan mengalokasikan suatu IP Public untuk FTP Server tersebut, misalnya IP, maka template konfigurasinya sebagai berikut ini:

conf t
ip nat inside source static [ip lokal] [ip global]
int [interface ke arah internet/global]
ip nat outside
int [interface ke arah private/lokal]
ip nat inside

contoh konfigurasi:
conf t
ip nat inside source static
int s0/0/0
<——- misal s0/0/0 interface router ke arah internet
ip nat outside
int fao/o
<——- misal fa0/0 interface router ke arah lokal
ip nat inside

Bila ada server lain yang juga ingin bisa diakses dari internet, maka tambahkan baris NAT Static-nya lagi.


NAT Dynamic digunakan untuk menerjemahkan beberapa IP lokal ke beberapa IP global ataupun sebaliknya. Proses penerjemahannya secara dynamic, jadi pada translasi IP nya tidak selalu sama seperti NAT Static. Ketidakefektifan pada NAT Dynamic adalah jumlah IP global yang dibutuhkan untuk mentranslasikan IP lokal harus sama (n to n mapping), misalnya kita ingin mentranslasikan 10 IP lokal ke global maka dibutuhkan 10 IP global/publik. Jika kita punya 11 IP Private, tapi hanya punya 10 IP Publik sudah dapat dipastikan bahwa ada 1 IP Private yang tidak dapat ditranslasikan pada saat yang bersamaan.

Untuk menanggulangi ketidakefektifan NAT dynamic, muncullah solusi baru yakni NAT Dynamic Overload atau yang biasa dikenal dengan nama Port Address Translation (PAT). Pada NAT Overload jumlah IP publik yang dibutuhkan tidak harus sama dengan jumlah IP Private yang mau ditranslasikan (n to m mapping), bahkan hanya dengan menggunakan 1 IP publik kita dapat mentranlasikan banyak IP Private.

Untuk konfigurasi di router cisco antara NAT dynamic dan dynamic overload tidak ada perbedaan, hanya perlu menampahkan kata kunci ” overload “ untuk mengaktifkan fungsi NAT dynamic overload.

Template konfigurasinya sebagai berikut:

a. Buat ACL untuk IP private yang akan ditranslasikan
access-list [nomor acl] permit [network address lokal] [wildcard mask lokal]

b. Buat NAT Pool untuk ip global/publik yang akan digunakan untuk mentranslasi IP private
ip nat pool [nama pool] [ip global terendah] [ip global tertinggi] netmask [subnet mask ip global]

c. Terapkan translasi dynamic menggunakan access list dan IP pool yg telah kita buat
ip nat inside source list [nomor/nama acl] pool [nama nat pool] overload

d. Tentukan interface NAT outside dan inside nya
int [interface ke arah internet/global]
ip nat outside
int [interface ke arah private/lokal]
ip nat inside

Sebagai contoh, misal kita punya ip publik –  6 /29 yang ingin digunakan untuk mentranslasikan ip publik, maka konfigurasinya sebagai berikut:

conf t
access-list 1 permit
ip nat pool coba netmask
ip nat inside source list 1 pool coba overload
int s0/0/0 <——- misal s0/0/0 interface router ke arah internet
ip nat outside
int fao/o <——- misal fa0/0 interface router ke arah lokal
ip nat inside


– IP Publik yang ingin digunakan untuk NAT harus belum digunakan/terpasang di interface yg terhubung dengan internet
– IP Publik yang ingin digunakan untuk NAT harus terbaca oleh routing dari internet



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